A Basic Needs Policy Model: A General Equilibrium Analysis by Arend KOUWENAAR (Eds.) PDF

By Arend KOUWENAAR (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 044470468X

ISBN-13: 9780444704689

Utilizing contemporary examine on Ecuador, this ebook discusses a social accounting matrix (SAM)-based version for simulating the consequences of simple wishes regulations on numerous socio-economic teams. particular parameter selection and specification of relationships let the overall equilibrium version to catch rigidities and occurrences of non-perfect commodity and issue markets. easy wishes delight is defined as an ``output'' caused by source of revenue formation and expenditure, and dynamically associated with the structural strategies of family and socio-economic crew formation, formation of the labour strength and wealth, and labour productiveness. Simulations pay attention to the consequences of varied expenditure, oblique tax and redistributive rules on earning and easy wishes delight

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1: 359) found the provinces Carchi, and Azuay, all in the Sierra, to be poorest in terms of 11 level-of-living indicators. Macro constraints. expansion GDP in tuated GDP. of both national savings and investment. Savings grew from 9% of 1965 to 13% in 1970, climbed to a peak of 22% in 1979, and fluc- between 17% and 20% thereafter. Investment fluctuated around 23% of Over 40% The period 1965-1983 has been characterised by a rapid 60% of savings originated in households before 1980, falling to after 1980, when self-financing of public and private enterprises rose considerably to compensate diminishing foreign finance.

Van der Laan and Talman (1979)). Access to computer time is limited for most model builders and the guaranteed convergence of Scarf algorithms becomes less relevant in such situations. e. a set of price vectors into itself. In this approach excess demand functions and their first derivatives with respect to all prices are evaluated at the previous price vector and the new price vector is defined as a function of these evaluations and so on. In principle, at each itera- tion, the excess demand function f, (P-,..

See Byerlee et al. (1983) and Van Ginneken and Baron (1984) for empirical verification of such correspondence. 2). The importance of local governments for the implementation of basic needs policies should be stressed; cf. 5). The costs of a policy to achieve a certain benefit for the poor can be defined as the losses of tax payers and other losers. Although comparing the losses of one group with the gains (basic needs satisfaction) of another is difficult and requires a social welfare function, one is able to compare the costs of two different policies - both achieving the same benefits for the poor - by evaluating their effects on total real consumption or some other measure of welfare.

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A Basic Needs Policy Model: A General Equilibrium Analysis with Special Reference to Ecuador by Arend KOUWENAAR (Eds.)


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