By Susan L. Cutter
Barrier islands, Flood plains, Earthquake faults: occasionally the surroundings poses threats to our health, but many people proceed to decide on to dwell in dicy or risky locations. And on most sensible of the knowns are the opposite, extra hidden risks concerning environmental illness that pose both critical threats to our future health and health. yet the place are those areas and what forms of risks are chanced on there? "American Hazardscapes" examines the hazards linked to dwelling and possessing estate in diversified areas around the usa, delivering twin views: that of the geographer and that of the social technological know-how dangers researcher. The booklet summarizes what we already learn about nearby styles of danger occasions and losses throughout the past 3 many years and is going extra to make clear the character of the occasions themselves and their effect on society. Written for the moving citizen and the coverage maker alike, "American Hazardscapes" provides a nearby ecology of disaster-prone or disaster-resistant states. It additionally bargains suggestions on what neighborhood, nation, and federal managers have to do to fulfill the problem of decreasing possibility losses within the subsequent century.
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Extra resources for American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (Natural Hazards and Disasters)
These modeled outputs provide the risk information that is transmitted to the public—height of the flood crest, date and time that river is expected to overflow its banks, and date and time that the river flow is expected to recede within its banks (Mason and Weiger 1995). Coastal Risk The Coastal Vulnerability Index evaluates shoreline segments on their risk potential from coastal erosion or inundation (Gornitz et al. Methods for Determining Disaster Proneness 23 1994, FEMA 1997a). High-risk coastlines are defined by low coastal elevations, histories of shoreline retreat, high wave/tidal energies, erodible substrates, subsidence experience, and high probabilities of hurricane and/or tropical storm hits.
Cutter aps are a fundamental means of communication. They have been used since prehistoric times to indicate directions to travelers, describe portions of the Earth’s surface, or record boundaries including zones of danger. The collection, mapping, and analysis of geographic information are essential elements in understanding how we live with, respond to, and mitigate against hazards. We begin this chapter with a primer on the fundamental concepts in mapping—scale, resolution of geographic data, and characteristics of spatial databases.
It might be most appropriate to say that the damage-wind speed estimate is at the individual building scale (our observational unit) but the forecast of future losses is at the census tract scale (our collection/ reporting unit). Even though the spatial extent of our study was nationwide (at least all metropolitan areas in the country), it would be inappropriate to say we had conducted a national-scale study. As this example illustrates, the use of the term spatial scale is often so contextual and audience-specific that it is confusing to others when we say our study is at such-and-such a spatial scale.
American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (Natural Hazards and Disasters) by Susan L. Cutter