By F.R. Walther
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Additional info for Communication and expression in hoofed mammals
However, practically speaking—and particularly with respect to animals—we can usually only take it from the sender's change in behavior that he has recognized the recipient's response. , grooming) if the communication has not worked. However, since the bulk of our discussions concerns the communication between animals of the same species (intraspecific communication), we can largely unburden this text from questions concerning the "agreedupon code": we can simply take it for granted that a recipient is able to understand the signals of a conspecific sender.
We will have to face similar problems in the later discussion on physiognomy and expressive behavior which may perhaps contribute to some further clarification. Thus, in a sense, I try to please everybody when speaking of "signs, signals, or symbols," and I hope that most of my readers can accept this formulation without too great an inner resistance. In short, the effect is not as sure and unavoidable as when I push him. These advantages appear to be so important to social life that communication by signs and signals obviously has been invented in the behavioral repertories of many and very different animal species.
Cherry 1957) wish to acknowledge for animals. 1a. (Walther 1978d. I hardly see how these changes of the sender's orientation can be explained by the tropism theory. Again, this "choice" is hard to explain by a tropism. On the other hand, one may still speak of a kind of addressing since the display is clearly released by the other's presence and/or behavior, the latter can definitely perceive it, and it is absolutely appropriate for delivering a definite message to him. As always in the "towhomitmay concern" type, of course, the major part of the Page 26 communication process is now with the recipient, and the role of the sender's addressing has dwindled to a minimum; however, such a minimum may still be said to be recognizable.
Communication and expression in hoofed mammals by F.R. Walther