By Gérard Blanchet, Bertrand Dupouy
This booklet lays out the suggestions essential to know how a working laptop or computer works.
For purposes of readability, the authors have intentionally selected examples that follow to machines from all eras, with no need to water down the contents of the booklet. This selection is helping to teach how strategies, ideas and performances have advanced because the first computers.
The booklet is split into 5 elements. the 1st 4, that are of accelerating trouble, are the middle of the publication: “Elements of a simple Architecture”, “Programming version and Operation”, “Memory Hierarchy”, “Parallelism and function Enhancement”. the ultimate half offers tricks and ideas to the routines within the publication in addition to appendices. The reader might procedure each one half independently in response to their past wisdom and pursuits.
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Extra resources for Computer Architecture
The technology which falls into two categories: - rapid memories that rely on transistor-transistor logic (TTL) technology; - Complementary MOS (CMOS) technologies, which have very low energy consumption and allow for high-scale integration (personal computers on the market today have memory components equipped with several billion bytes). – The internal organization which allows more or less rapid access to information. Examples of available memory include VRAM (Video RAM), EDO (Extended Data Out), synchronous RAM, etc.
The binary number 1010 = 1 × 23 + 0 × 22 + 1 × 21 + 0 = 1010 . – The change from base 10 to base 2 is done by a series of divisions by 2 for the integer part and a series of multiplications by 2 for the fractional part. 375 in base 10. We can switch to its base 2 representation by doing the following: 1) For the integer part, xINT , we perform the series of divisions: 20 0 2 10 0 2 5 1 2 2 0 2 1 The result is given by the last quotient and the previous remainders. We get xINT = 101002 . The Representation of Information 37 2) The fractional part xFRAC is obtained by a series of multiplications by 2.
4. Flag register The ﬂag register, or condition code register, plays a role that becomes clear when performing a sum with a carry. When summing two integers coded in several memory words, the operation must be performed over several summing instructions, each instruction involving only a word. While there is no need to consider a carry for the ﬁrst sum, since it involves the least signiﬁcant bits of the operands, the same cannot be said of the following sums. The carry resulting from the execution of a sum is stored in the ﬂag register.
Computer Architecture by Gérard Blanchet, Bertrand Dupouy