By Bruce Riedel
Pakistan and the U.S. were locked in a dangerous embody for many years. Successive American presidents from either events have pursued slim temporary pursuits within the South Asian country, and lots of of the ensuing rules proved counterproductive within the long-term, contributing to political instability and a radicalized public. This historical past has helped set the degree for the worldwide jihad confronting a lot of the realm today.
In Deadly Embrace, Bruce Riedel explores the forces in the back of those advancements, explaining how and why the historical past of Pakistan-U.S. family has opened up because it has. He explains what the USA can do now to fix the wear and tear and the way it will possibly keep away from making comparable error in facing extremist forces in Pakistan and beyond.
Riedel is considered one of America's prime specialists on U.S. safety, South Asia, and terrorism, and he helped to craft President Obama's 2009 speech concerning the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands because the ''most harmful sector of the world.'' He follows up The look for al Qaeda, his influential 2008 research of the fear network's ideology and management, with a sober, authoritative, and occasionally alarming examine the background, significance, and present position of Pakistan, epicenter of the worldwide jihad stream, starting with the heritage of U.S.-Pakistan kin because the partitioning of the subcontinent in 1947.
The courting among Pakistan and the United States is an engaging but muddled tale, meandering via classes of friendship and enmity, symbiosis and mistrust: it truly is no ask yourself that individuals in either international locations are harassed. Deadly Embrace explains how the USA, on numerous events, truly helped the foes of democracy in Pakistan and aided within the improvement of the very enemies it truly is now combating within the quarter. The publication seeks to solve this paradox, revealing and studying the tortuous direction of kin among very varied countries, which stay, in lots of methods, caught with each one other.
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Extra info for Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America, and the Future of the Global Jihad
S. secretary of state. New Delhi was also opposed to his ideas for setting up regional alliances in the Middle East and South Asia akin to NATO, to contain Russia and China. By contrast, Karachi welcomed Dulles with enthusiasm, eager for American military aid and for an alliance that would strengthen its hand against India. Pakistan was quite happy to join the anti-communist chorus—as an Islamic state, it was opposed to atheistic Marxism anyway— but its eyes were mainly on its own agenda. India, not China or Russia, was its strategic concern.
The rift with Washington was short lived, however, and arms ties resumed with the election of Richard Nixon in 1968. Nixon was now an even more enthusiastic Pakistan supporter than he had been as vice president. Pakistan became the key to Nixon’s secret diplomacy as president, the means to opening the door to Beijing. During a visit to South Asia in August 1969, Nixon approached Yahya Khan with the idea of Pakistan serving as an intermediary to establish direct American-Chinese contacts. For the next two years, Pakistan passed messages back and forth between Nixon and Mao.
No Afghan government has ever recognized the legitimacy of the Durand Line. As the British prepared to leave India, Afghanistan pressed for a revision of the border. When its request was refused, Afghanistan voted against Pakistan getting a seat in the United Nations and called for an independent Pashtunistan to be carved out of Pakistan. Such a move would have expanded Afghanistan all the way to the Indus River, and even to the Indian Ocean if Baluchistan were gobbled up as well. indd 22 11/29/10 9:28 AM zia ’ s jihadâ•‡ /â•‡ 23 Events took a new turn in 1978, when Marxist officers in the Afghan army overthrew the country’s neutralist government and began to import communist ideology and politics.
Deadly Embrace: Pakistan, America, and the Future of the Global Jihad by Bruce Riedel