By Justin Jones
Curiosity in Shi'ism Islam has elevated significantly in recent times, even if Shi'ism within the Indian subcontinent has remained mostly underexplored. concentrating on the influential Shi'a minority of Lucknow and the United Provinces, a area that was once principally lower than Shi'a rule till 1856, this ebook lines the background of Indian Shi'ism during the colonial interval towards Independence in 1947. Drawing on more than a few new assets, together with spiritual writing, polemical literature, and clerical biography, it assesses seminal advancements together with the expansion of Shi'a non secular activism, madrasa schooling, missionary task, ritual innovation, and the politicization of the Shi'a neighborhood. because of those major spiritual and social adjustments, a Shi'a sectarian id constructed that existed in separation from instead of in interplay with its Sunni opposite numbers. during this method the painful start of recent sectarianism was once initiated, the results of that are a great deal alive in South Asia this present day. The booklet makes an important contribution to the worldwide background of Shi'ism, and to understandings of inner-Islamic conflicts within the colonial and post-colonial worlds.
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Extra info for Shi'a Islam in Colonial India: Religion, Community and Sectarianism
The great mujtahids (religious scholars) of Lucknow are once again vocal public ﬁgures, using a series of new podiums and organizations to reclaim their public proﬁle and social relevance in a way unseen in decades. A series of madrasas (religious schools) have recently been established, creating a refreshed, functional body of ‘ulama. Specialist preachers vie for invitations to offer sermons and dirges for the Imams in private and public, while a number of Shi‘a publishing-houses offer a new, Urdu-literate audience unprecedented access to religious knowledge.
There were also those Shi‘a who were left behind as part of the old Nawabi courtly nobility. Of these, around 1,700 or so belonged to a group known as wasiqadars. These, the pensioners and dependants formerly attached to 13 14 On the deﬁnition and signiﬁcance of sayyids see esp. , Moral conduct and authority: the place of adab in South Asian Islam (London, 1984); Cole, Roots of north Indian Shi‘ism, pp. 72–84. Charles William, The report on the Census of Oudh, Volume I (Lucknow, 1869), p. 76. 8 Shi‘a Islam in Colonial India the Awadh court, continued in British India to draw tokenistic alms from the huge Nawabi religious endowments (waqfs) established to provide for them in perpetuity.
Nevill, District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, volume XXXVII: Lucknow (Allahabad, 1904), p. 65. R. Burn to His Honour, 27 September 1912, Political File No. 42/1913, UPSA; cf. Lovett to Chief Secretary, 31 January 1913, ibid. Introduction: Writing on Indian Shi‘ism m a p i . 1 . Major Muslim sites and institutions of colonial Lucknow. fi g u r e i . 1 . Monuments of Nawabi Lucknow: the Asaﬁ mosque and Asafud-daula imambara, photographed c. 1895 (MacPherson Collection, Centre of South Asian Studies, Cambridge).
Shi'a Islam in Colonial India: Religion, Community and Sectarianism by Justin Jones