The ancient geography of India - download pdf or read online

By Alexander Cunningham

The Geography of India can be very easily divided right into a few precise sections, every one widely named after the present spiritual and political personality of the interval which it embraces, as theB rahnanical, theB uddhist and theM uhammadan. The Brahmanical interval may hint the slow extension of the A ryan race over Northern I ndia, from their first profession of the Panjab to the increase of Buddhism, and could contain the entire of the Prehistoric, or earliest part of their heritage, duiing which era the faith of the Vedas used to be the present trust of the rustic. The Buddhist interval, or historical Geography of I ndia, may embody the increase, extension, and decline of theB uddhist religion, from the period of Buddha, to the conquests of Mahmud of Ghazni, in the course of the higher a part of which period Buddhism was once the dominant faith of the rustic. The Muhammadan interval, or glossy Geography of I ndia, may embody the increase and extension of theM uhammadan energy, from the time of Mahmud of Ghazni to the conflict of Plassey, or approximately 750 years, within which time theM usalm ,ns have been the paramount sovereigns of I ndia.
(Typographical error above are because of OCR software program and do not ensue within the book.)

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These complete the round number of eighty kingdoms into which India was divided in the seventh century of our era. I. NORTHERN INDIA. The natural boundaries of India are the HimUaya mountains, the river Indus, and the sea. But on the west, these Limits have been so frequently overstepped by powerful kings that most authors, from the time of Alexander down to a very late period, have considered Eastern Ariana, or the greater part of Afghanistan, as f3rming a portion of the Indian continent. " Strabot also says that '' the Indians oocupy (in part) some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians.

I believe, also, that the same distinctive name may be restored to a corrupt passage of Pliny, where he is speaking of this very part of the country. His words, as given by the Leipsic editor, and as quoted by Cellarius,* are ' l Caroppidum sub Cltucaso, quod postea Tetragonis dictum. Hm regio est ex adverso. D. T. D. 1855, agree in reading ex adverso Bactrinnorum. This makes sense of the words as they stand, but it makes nonsense of the passage, as it refers the city of Alexandria to Bactria, a district which Pliny had fully described in a previous chapter.

1839,p. 257. 10 THE ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA. and this is the form which the historian Matwanlin has adopted. D. 503 and 504, when the kings of Northern and Southern India are mentioned as having followed his example.? No divisions are alluded to in any of the earlier Chinese notices of India; but the different provinces are described by name, and not by position. D. D. § The f i s t of these names I would refer to the second and third centuries after Christ, when the powerful Guptas of Magadha rulcd over the greater part of India.

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The ancient geography of India by Alexander Cunningham


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